By 1970, more than 10.6 million African Americans lived outside the South, 47 percent of the nation's total.. Other northeastern and midwestern industrial cities, such as Philadelphia, New York City, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, and Omaha, also had dramatic increases in their African-American populations. They succeeded in building effective community responses that enabled the survival of new communities. From 1970 to 2010, the total number of census-recognized cities grew by nearly 50 percent. In a number of states, there were decades of black population decline, especially across the Deep South "black belt" where cotton had been king. Intimidation and beatings were also used to terrorize blacks into staying. Because so many people migrated in a short period of time, the African-American migrants were often resented by the urban European-American working class (many of whom were recent immigrants themselves); fearing their ability to negotiate rates of pay or secure employment, the ethnic whites felt threatened by the influx of new labor competition. James Gilbertlove, "African Americans and the American Labor Movement", Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, 'Ruralizing' the City: Theory, Culture, History, and Power in the Urban Environment, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, Population Division Working Paper – Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990 – U.S. Census Bureau, "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In The United States: 1790 to 1990", Carl Zimmer, "Tales of African-American History Found in DNA", The Great Migration of Black Americans from the US South: A Guide and Interpretation, Schomburg Center's In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience, "Goin' to Chicago and African American 'Great Migrations'", Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Black players in professional American football, History of African Americans in the Canadian Football League, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Migration_(African_American)&oldid=1001484605, African-American history between emancipation and the civil rights movement, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Collins, William J. While some African American men also enlisted in the armed forces, many others migrated to the North to fill these positions. The Great Migration was the mass movement of about five million southern blacks to the north and west between 1915 and 1960. The Great Migration drained off much of the rural black population of the South, and for a time, froze or reduced African-American population growth in parts of the region. On migration, the species soars extensively both on thermals and mountain updrafts. Muddy Waters, Chester Burnett, and Buddy Guy are among the most well-known blues artists who migrated to Chicago. From the earliest U.S. population statistics in 1780 until 1910, more than 90% of the African-American population lived in the American South. For example, in a study of housing in Akron completed in 1939, it was determined that sixty percent of the city's houses were constructed between 1914 and 1924 when the Great Migration was at its peak.  In 1787, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance establishing a government for the Northwest Territory. In 1900, only one-fifth of African Americans in the South were living in urban areas. It wasn't peaches and cream [in Chicago], man, but it was a hell of a lot better than down there where I was born. " The "Black Belt" geographical and racial isolation of this community, bordered to the north and east by whites, and to the south and west by industrial sites and ethnic immigrant neighborhoods, made it a site for the study of the development of an urban black community. Tens of thousands of blacks were recruited for industrial jobs, such as positions related to the expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The AFL, the American Federation of Labor, advocated the separation between White and African Americans in the workplace. Thousands of African Americans who participated in the Great Migration settled in Cleveland, Youngstown, Toledo, and Akron and other Ohio cities. Blacks were not the only group to leave the South for Northern industrial opportunities. "The foundation of the first African American YMCA took place in Bronzeville, and worked to help incoming migrants find jobs in the city of Chicago. When multiple destinations were equidistant, chain migration played a larger role, with migrants following the path set by those before them. The flow of African Americans to Ohio, particularly to Cleveland, changed the demographics of the state and its primary industrial city. Local organizations such as the Albany Inter-Racial Council and churches, helped them, but de facto segregation and discrimination remained well into the late 20th century.. This period of time was defined by violence and prolonged rioting between blacks and whites in major United States cities. This created a wartime opportunity in the North for African Americans, as the Northern industry sought a new labor supply in the South. 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